This overview of research on the relationship between behavior and culture is organized as follows. The first section relates how cross-cultural psychology, or cultural psychology, since it emerged in the mid 20th century has reflected a continuous tension between how and how much humans are the same psychologically and to what extent there is cultural specificity in psychological functioning. The second section on the charm of differences argues that research is often biased towards finding differences rather than cross-cultural invariance. The third section briefly outlines problems of cultural bias, or lack of equivalence, in assessment across cultural populations and its implications for interpretation of data. The fourth section makes explicit a theme that is embedded in other sections and reflected in the title, namely the psychological organization of cross-cultural differences. The section challenges the tendency to conceive of such differences as being organized in broad dimensions or psychological functions. This tendency to over-generalize is illustrated in the fifth section for various traditions of research, including the recent tradition of cultural neuroscience where the increasing contributions of Chinese researchers are particularly evident. An outlook and some conclusions are presented in the final section.
Although most business ethical decisions are made by teams rather than individuals, only a few studies have focused on team ethical decision making, which remain on comparing the results of individual and team ethical decision-making directly without much aid of theories. Based on studies of individual ethical decision-making, group decision-making, and Chinese cultural characteristics (reflection, zhongyong, authoritarian leadership, et al.), we intend to explore the mechanism of team ethical decision making process and the effect pattern of its antecedents. Specifically, it will include four sub-studies in two aspects via multiple methods. First, a process mechanism model is developed to look at the mechanism of team ethical decision-making process. Second, based on social decision scheme theory, an opinion integration mechanism is set up to integrate the opinions out of team ethical decision-making when focusing on the core differences between team and individual ethical decision-making. The other two are about member and leadership with regard to the effect pattern of antecedents: to study the mechanism of how member diversity influences team ethical decision-making via information processing and team conflict; to study the mechanism of how leadership features affects team ethical decision-making by information sampling model.
In our life, some people prefer more masculine faces while some favor feminine faces instead. A lot of research has been dedicated to explain this disagreement and obtained inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore difference preference for sexual dimorphism in male face shape, and the factors affecting this preference. Through literature retrieval, 23 cases and 56 independent effect sizes together with 8408 participants which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected. The result of funnel plot and Egger’s intercept illustrated that there was not publication bias. Main-effect test findings demonstrated that there was no significantly preference for masculinity or femininity (Odds ratio point estimate = 0.95). The moderator analysis revealed that menstrual cycle, computer graphics methodology moderated the preference, however, the culture background, participant’s gender, relationship context had no significant moderate effect. Therefore, we can draw a conclusion that people’s preferences for sexual dimorphism in male face shape is not only influenced by biological factors (Menstrual Cycle) of themselves, but also modulated by graphics methodology.
This meta-analysis examined the effect of ego depletion, as well as potential moderators, on sporting performance. A search of relevant literature in both Chinese and English databases yielded a total of 31 papers (n = 1613 participants), which were all included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that: (1) There was a moderate effect of ego depletion on sporting performance (d = 0.55, 95% CI [0.39, 0.71]), although this might be overestimated due to publication bias. (2) The effect of ego depletion on sporting performance was not moderated by the type of participant or sporting task, but was moderated by the type of ego depleting task and stress manipulation used. (3) There was no significant effect found for ego depletion on subjective perceived exertion, heart rate, or EMG activation in the sporting tasks. These findings support the generalizability of Baumeister’s Strength Model of Self-Control, as well as its integration with Eysenck and colleague’s Attention Control Theory. Future research should attempt to standardize the experimental conditions employed, and explore interventions designed to mitigate against ego depletion effects in sport.
Response inhibition means the ability to suppress behaviours that are inappropriate, unsafe, or no longer required and belongs to the function of executive control that is highly susceptible to addictive behaviors. Extensive studies indicate that drinking behavior is associated with the performance of response inhibition even after abstinence for a long time. The inhibition ability of the offspring of drinkers is also impaired and there is high risk of addiction for them. Investigating the underlying brain structure and neurotransmitter of function impairment and presenting the new response inhibition training based on the dual processing model have both theoretical and practical implications. In the future, several problems should be explored and further studies should emphasize on both genetic and environment factors.
Parental meta-emotion philosophy (PMEP), the organized set of feelings and thoughts parents have about their own and their children’s emotions, has received increasing scholarly attention in the past decades. In the present paper we summarize extant empirical studies on the evolution of the construct of the PMEP and on the mechanism of the PMEP in relation to children’s psychosocial adjustment. We also discuss the effect of its covariates such as age, coaching and interventions from the perspective of emotional parenting. In the future, more studies with domestic Chinese samples should be conducted to explore the universality and validity of the PMEP among Chinese parents. Diversified measurements need to be developed to assess the PMEP more accurately. In addition, the research on PMEP should be expanded and put into application, through ways such as parental emotion coaching and interventions, especially among children with special needs.
Evolutionary psychologists believe that human mental functions are adaptive and shaped by evolution. As an important evolutionary force, sexual selection plays important roles in the evolution of human mental functions. Mating motive is usually regarded as closely associated with sexual selection. By priming participants with vignettes or attractive opposite-sex faces to induce mating motive, studies have found that it could impact a wide range of cognitive processes, including attention, perception, memory, decision making, plus social behavior. Intrasexual selection, intersexual selection and parental investment are classic theories employed to explain the effects of mating motive. However, they fail to embrace the roles of culture and hierarchical selection. Also, more replications of studies and solid paradigms, plus behavioral and neurobiological data, are indispensable for establishing a psychological framework of mating motive.
There is a growing concern for men’s body shape, and male body ideal has changed accordingly. Researches indicated that with the influence of biological and sociocultural factors, male body ideal changed from muscular to lean and muscular. Biological factor related research demonstrated that groups of different gender, age and sex orientation own different male body ideals; while research based on the sociocultural theory of body image development posited that family, peer and media are transmitters of sociocultural pressure on conforming to male body ideals. Future work should endeavor to establish a body fat and muscularity dual way model of male body ideal by using a longitudinal study to validate the influence of biological and sociocultural factors, consummating theory system of male body ideal, and these could help providing a cogent theoretical basis to formulate the body image related interventions and policies.
Power in intimate relationship refers to the ability or capacity of one individual in an intimate relationship to change the partner’s thoughts, feelings, and/or behavior so they align with one’s own desired preferences, along with the ability or capacity to resist influence attempts imposed by the partner. Two of the most recent theoretical advances in this area of research are the dyadic power-social influence model and the relationship stage model of power. Researchers usually measure power in intimate relationship through self-report, observational coding or experimental manipulating. The effects of power in intimate relationship include those on thoughts, feelings, as well as prosocial, aggressive and sexual behaviors. Future research should approach power in intimate relationship from the perspective of social relations and explore a number of issues. These issues include the relation between power in intimate relationship and general power, the impact of intimacy on the effects of power in intimate relationship, as well as the impact of relationship stages on influence tactics in intimate relationships.
With the development of information and communication technologies, the Internet has become a new platform for interpersonal communication nowadays. Online environment is different from offline with the characters of anonymity, convenience and easiness to control. Empathy, which is defined as the capability to understand the situation of others, plays an important role in interpersonal communication. In modern information society, the relationship between Internet use and empathy has attracted the attentions of researchers. Current results show that, different Internet use behaviors have different effects on empathy - online violent video games would decrease empathy, while online prosocial video games could promote empathy. Online communities provide the ideal platform for the free expression of empathy. Excessive Internet use has negative effects on empathy. But the existing studies are scattered, future studies should combine diverse methods to conduct more application researches, and theoretical construction also needs to be strengthened.
Sharing emotional events with group members amplifies each individual’s emotional experience compared to experiencing the same emotional events as an individual. This increase is termed the amplification effect of group-shared emotion. Considerable experimental evidence supports this concept. Different underlying mechanisms for this effect, e.g., group co-attention and emotional contagion, have been proposed. Building on the theories of social appraisal and shared reality, we proposed that the amplification effect of group-shared emotion occurs via an appraisal-verification-amplification process model. Previous research on the amplification effect primarily focused on dyads, and the emotions were even experienced in artificial situations. Hence, further research should examine the amplification effect in real group situations. More research is also need to examine the appraisal-verification-amplification process model.
Confronting prejudice is a social behavior adopted by prejudice targets and bystanders in order to express their dissatisfaction. This social behavior can reduce the level of prejudice of the perpetrating group and contribute to the establishment of anti-prejudice social norms. It is an effective strategy to reduce prejudice. Research on confronting prejudice can be divided into two aspects, i.e. the effect of confronting prejudice and the confronting prejudice behavior. The former focuses on the action mechanism, specific effect and factors affecting confronting prejudice, using material and experimental research paradigms; while the later focuses on the occurrence mechanism and factors affecting the confronting prejudice behavior, using retrospective, real-time recording and prospective research paradigms. Future research should pay much more attention to the comprehensive use of research paradigms and improvement of ecological validity to facilitate the organic combination of the research on the effect and behaviors of confronting prejudice. It would also be useful to explore the neurophysiologic mechanism and effective strategies for confronting prejudice in the future.
People adopt different strategic ways during goal pursuit. To understand individual’s underlying motivational principle, the regulatory focus theory distinguishes two self-regulation strategies. Promotion focus, serving nurturance needs, motivates individual to approach positive outcomes and acquire accomplishments; while prevention focus, serving security needs, stimulates individual to avoid negative outcomes and realize responsibilities. Although originated from social psychology literature, regulatory focus theory has had significant impacts on the organizational management research. The current paper clarifies the concept and operationalization, reviews empirical findings in organizational studies, and concludes with theoretical implications and directions for future organizational research.
In this paper, we reviewed existing scientific literature on adverse effects of air pollution, particularly psychological and behavioral effects, and how these effects are developed under different theoretical frameworks. Collective evidence indicated that air pollution exerts negative effects on human physical health, but also cognitive functions, emotions and behaviors. As for now, two theoretical frameworks have been developed to interpret how air pollution causes a series of adverse effects, framework of environmental stressors and framework of social-environmental interaction. These frameworks arguably stated that adverse effect of air pollution is not only subject to the direct exposure of air pollution, but also individual’s psychosomatic status and he or she how to evaluate air pollution. We also discussed future directions for this line of research for environmental psychologists. Future research is expected to improve research approach, and conduct psychological studies under the framework of environmental stress and risk perception.
The use of computer-based assessments makes it possible to collect response time in psychological and educational testing contexts. The collection of response time has significant implications for improving psychological and educational testing theories and practice. The author first introduces five advantages of utilizing response time, including its ability to distinguish test takers’ genuine ability from their speed, investigate the speed-accuracy trade-off, detect aberrant behaviors during the testing, improve the efficiency of item selection methods in the computerized adaptive testing (CAT), and compare within-individual test-taking strategies. Then, the model features of response time models with different construction orientations are elaborated in the context of psychological and educational testing, and these models are evaluated comprehensively. Moreover, current applications of the response time models in psychological and educational testing are systematically reviewed and analyzed. Finally, directions for future research in response time in psychological and educational testing are discussed.
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